yearly Jewish calendar – Have you ever wondered how we ended using the calendar system that we used today, why there are seven days in one week, why there are thirty days in one month? These questions could be answered by learning the history of calendar.
The calendar that the world is generally using now is Gregorian calendar. Gregorian calendar is developed as improvement of Julian calendar, introduced by Pope Gregory XIII. Based on a Julian Calendar is a reformation of a Roman calendar. The development and correction are made to match the number of a day in one year with the earth’s revolution towards sun. Therefore, this calendar is classified as solar calendar.
Predating the Roman calendar, there are Alexandrian calendar, byzantine calendar, and the Jewish calendar. Yearly Jewish Calendar is used by Jewish, and now still be used as Jewish holidays.
Yearly Jewish Calendar that Inspires the Modern Calendar
The element of Jewish calendar is still used in the modern calendar, like the number of months in a year is twelve, the number of days in a month is around 29 and 30, And the number of days in one week is seven.
The number days in the month determined by the lunar phases, while the year is determined by the season and sun position. The combination of month and year makes the Jew’s calendar a lunisolar calendar.
A week and Sabbath day
Sabbath, in Hebrew, means to cease or to stop. In Judaism, God had created earth and heavens in six days, and the seventh day is the rest. And god stopped creating things on Sunday. Because of that, the Sabbath day is considered holly. God, also prohibits men to work on Sabbath. The day should be filled with worship and rest.
By yearly Jewish calendar, the day shifts in the evening. Jews commemorate Sabbath by lighting a candle right before Friday’s sunset. Jewish people note the Sabbath as hallmark. Most of the Jew holidays are on Friday’s eve and Saturday.
Month and moon phase
The Jewish calendar is lunisolar. It means, the day of the years is determined by the sun, while the month is determined by the moon. The moon phases take time for 29 and 30 days every cycle. Hence, a month is changing every moon phase end and start.
A new month is started when a new moon appeared. Later the waxing crescent signifies that it’s early month. First quarter moon, when the month looks halved, as it’ name is a sign for the first quarter of the month. It was followed by waxing gibbous, a sign that it’s between first quarter and the middle of the month.
Then, the full moon indicates that it’s in the middle of the month. Waning gibbous is a sign that it’s between middle of the month and the last quarter. The second sight of the halved moon, is a sign of last quarter.
Years is determined
Years is determined by observing the sun movement and seasonal change. Besides the sun rises and sets as the earth rotates, sun position also goes attitudinally between north and south, because of earth’s revolution.
Earth’s revolution and the way earth is tilted also make the seasonal change. The distance between sun and the subtropical location, both northern hemisphere, and southern hemisphere, changes as the earth revolves around the sun.
When the sun is close to a certain hemisphere, summer happens. And when the sun is far, winter happens. The length of the all-season is one year. This concept was also adopted in yearly Jewish calendar until now we are still using it in the Gregorian calendar.